The Business Book

(Joyce) #1



he business people we
remember are those who
do things differently—
people such as Facebook CEO
Sheryl Sandberg, US investor
Warren Buffett, Hong Kong business
magnate Stanley Ho, British
entrepreneur Richard Branson,
and US media giant Oprah Winfrey.
Similarly, the companies we
remember are those whose products
and services stand out. Companies
that shuffle along with the crowd,
doing the same thing in the same
old way, are soon forgotten; those
that disrupt industries and change
the game are celebrated, sometimes
even idolized.
In today’s global market,
competition is fierce and every
percentage point of market share is
hard fought and precious. Operating
in these markets is often a zero-sum
game: competition drives prices
down and costs up. Gaining a
significant competitive advantage
requires more than gradual
improvement, it demands radical
and disruptive shifts—if you cannot
win the game, move the goalposts.
Redefining the rules and boundaries
of an industry is the essence of
game-changing business strategy.

Thinking one step ahead of
customers and competitors disrupts
the status quo in a business’s favor.

Disruptive innovation
Harvard Business School scholar
Clayton Christensen identified
two types of technology that can
influence businesses: ”sustaining
technologies,” or advances in
technology that help companies
make gradual improvements to
product performance; and
“disruptive technologies,” radical
advances in technology that disrupt
the industry and force companies to
rethink their entire mode of being.
Christensen later changed the term
“disruptive technology” to

Steve Jobs Entrepreneur and inventor
Steven Paul Jobs was born on
February 24, 1955 in San
Francisco, California, US. In 1976,
at the age of 21, he and Steve
Wozniak started Apple Computers
(from the garage in Jobs’s home).
The business went public in 1980,
with a market value of $1.2 billion.
In 1985, after disagreements
with the board, Jobs was fired
by recently appointed CEO John
Sculley. Jobs nevertheless went
on to found NeXT Computer and
invest in Pixar Animation Studios,
which was to become hugely
successful. In a twist of corporate

fate, Apple bought NeXT in 1996
and Jobs returned to Apple later
that year, becoming CEO in

  1. In 1998 Jobs launched the
    iconic iMac computer and went
    on to preside over one of the
    most famous corporate
    renaissances in history. Under
    his guidance, Apple led the way
    with innovative product design
    and technology to become one
    of the most valuable technology
    businesses in the world.
    In 2010, Steve Jobs was 61st
    in Time Magazine’s “100 People
    who Changed the World.”
    He died on October 5, 2011.




1997 US professor Clayton M.
Christensen introduces the
concept of “disruptive
technologies”—major and
unforeseen technological
advances that cause companies
to redefine how they operate.

2000s Global Positioning
System (GPS) navigational
technology emerges as a
disruptive innovation in a
range of industries, from travel
and fitness to recreation and
smartphone applications.

2014 US professor of business
administration David
McAdams writes Game-
Changer: Game Theory and the
Art of Transforming Strategic
Situations. McAdams uggests
that game-changers are those
who are “determined enough
to change the game to their
own advantage.”

I want to put a dent
in the universe.
Steve Jobs
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