The Divergence of Judaism and Islam. Interdependence, Modernity, and Political Turmoil

(Joyce) #1

138 · Bat-Zion Eraqi Klorman

  1. Tribesmen in the north of Yemen even taught the Jews to use guns. Yahya
    Eraqi, interview, March 1982.

  2. On Shaykh Naṣir Mabkhut, see R. B. Serjeant, “The Post-Medieval and
    Modern History of San ̔a ̓ and the Yemen, ca. 953–1382/1515–1962,” in San ̔a ̓:
    An Arabian Islamic City, ed. R. B. Serjeant and Ronald Lewcock (London: World
    of Islam Festival Trust, 1983), 100n298.

  3. Abraham Ovadia, Netivot Temam ve-Zion (Tel-Aviv: Afiqim, 1985), 35.

  4. Cf. protection granted to a Jew by the ̔Umaysi tribe in the Khawlan dis-
    trict: “Our protection is given to you. Do not be afraid. Whoever throws water
    on you, we shall cover him with blood.” Nissim Binyamin Gamli ̓eli, Ḥevyon
    Teman: Memoirs, Stories, Folk Tales (Ramle: author, 1983), 18.

  5. Zadoc ̔Umaysi, interview, October 1994.

  6. Hayyim Ḥabshush, Mas ̔ot Ḥabshush, ed. S. D. Goitein (Tel-Aviv, 1939),

  7. For Morocco, see Shlomo Deshen, The Mellah Society, 21; Daniel Schroeter,
    “Trade as a Mediator in Muslim-Jewish Relations: Southwestern Morocco in the
    Nineteenth Century,” in Jews among Arabs: Contacts and Boundaries, ed. Mark R.
    Cohen and Abraham L. Udovitch (Princeton, N.J.: Darwin Press, 1989), 124–25.
    For Libya, see Harvey Goldberg, Mordecai Ha-Cohen: Higgid Mordecai (Jerusa-
    lem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1978), 45; Goldberg, Jewish Life, 12, 81; Lawrence Rosen,
    “Muslim-Jewish Relations in a Moroccan City,” International Journal of Middle
    East Studies 3 (1972): 445.

  8. See R. B. Serjeant, Customary and Shari ̔ah Law in Arabian Society (Hamp-
    shire: Varioum, 1991), 118–19; Gamli ̓eli, Ḥevyon Teman, 74.

  9. Cf. Goldberg, Jewish Life, 75, about Jewish peddlers in Libya who were
    allowed to enter Muslim homes and have direct contact with the women of the

  10. In March 1982 interviews, Pinhas Qapara explained: “The Arabs need
    the Jews, the Jew is like the salt of their life,” and Yaḥya Eraqi related that the
    tribesmen of the Mran district in northern Yemen pleaded that he move to their
    village, “since it is impossible that whenever we need to fix a gun we have to
    go to the village of al-Hajar.”

  11. S. D. Goitein, “Al ha-ḥayyim ha-ṣiburiyim shel ha-yehudim be- ̓eres Te-
    man,” in ha-Temanim: historia, sidrei ḥevra, ḥayei ruaḥ, ed. Menahem Ben Sasson
    (Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1983), 201–202; Serjeant, Customary and Shari ̔ah
    Law, 120; Yosef Qafih, Halikhot Teman (Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, 1978), 227;
    Bat-Zion Eraqi Klorman, “Yehudei ha-kfarim ba-ḥevra u-va-kalkala shel Te-
    man,” Tehuda 15 (1995): 44; Carmela Abdar, “ha-Mivne ha-miqṣo ̔i shel toshvei
    Surm al- ̔Awd kevituy le-ma ̔mado ve-ha-tahlikhim she ̔avru ̔alav,” in Le-Rosh
    Yosef, ed. Yosef Tobi (Jerusalem: Afiqim, 1995), 493.

  12. S. D. Goitein describes Jewish and Muslim relationships in Yemen as “a
    very tight symbiosis.” See “Dyuqano shel kfar orgim temani” in ha-Temanim, ed.
    Ben Sasson, 229.

  13. For immigration from Yemen to Palestine and its motives, see Bat-Zion

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