The Moroccan Nationalist Movement and Its Attitude toward Jews and Zionism · 171
Tsur, Qehila Qru ̔a, 5–13.
Abitbol, Yehudey Ṣfon Afriqa Hayom, 9–10.
Assaraf, Yehudey Marrōqō, 70–116; Michael M. Laskier, “The History of Zi-
onism in Moroccan, Tunisian, and Algerian Jewish Communities, 1897–1947,”
Sqira Ḥodshit 28 (August 1982): 10–13 (Hebrew).
The Hagana was the defense force of the Jewish Community (Yishuv) and
the Zionist movement prior to the establishment of the state of Israel.
Illegal immigration, also called Ha ̔apalah, was conducted at the initiative
of immigrant groups in Europe, the Jewish Agency, and in some cases with
the help of the United States and even the Nazis. In Palestine, ̔Aliya Bet was
organized beginning in 1939 by the Mossad Le- ̔Aliya Bet to bring immigrants
to mandatory Palestine after immigration was restricted by the British White
Paper of 1939.
Michael M. Laskier, “The Aliya of Moroccan Jews: Attitudes of Jewish
World Organizations and the Moroccan Government, 1949–1956,” Shorashim
Bamizraḥ 2 (1989): 317–18 (Hebrew); Laskier, “The History of Zionism”; Assaraf,
Yehudey Marocco, 67–69, 114–16, 242–44; Tsur, Qehila Qru ̔a, 17.
Tsur, Qehila Qru ̔a, 15–17; Michael M. Laskier, The Jews of the Maghreb
in the Shadow of Vichy and the Swastika (Tel Aviv: Tel-Aviv University, Diaspora
Research Institute, 1992), 102–106 (Hebrew).
Michael M. Laskier, Israel and the Aliya from North Africa, 1948–1970 (Beer
Sheva: Ben Gurion University, 2007), 52–53.
Laskier, The Jews of the Maghreb, 106–109; Laskier, “The Aliya of Moroc-
can Jews,” 316–23; Laskier, Israel and the Aliya, 55–68, 262–67, 389–92; Michael
M. Laskier, “The State of Israel and Moroccan Jews within Moroccan Politics,
1955–1960,” Michael: A Review of Jewish History in the Diaspora 14 (1987): 245–80
Laskier, The Jews of the Maghreb, 23–24.
Laskier, “The History of Zionism,” 14.
Laskier, The Jews of the Maghreb, 24–25, 93.
Laskier, Israel and the Aliya, 55–65; Tsur, Qehila Qru ̔a, 17–22, 75–76.
Alal al-Fassi, The Independence Movements in Arab North Africa (New York:
Octagon Books, 1970), 374.
Laskier, “The Aliya of Moroccan Jews,” 317–18; Assaraf, Yehudey Marrōqō,
232–36. It is to be noted that in 1955 the sultan met delegates of the Jewish
Agency and assured them he was personally committed to the Jewish commu-
nity of Morocco and would guarantee their safety and rights. See CZA Z6/925,
7 November 1955, Discours du Trône.
Laskier, Israel and the Aliya, 187–88.
Michael M. Laskier, Israel and the Maghreb: From Statehood to Oslo (Gaines-
ville: University Press of Florida, 2004), 50.