Theories of Personality 9th Edition

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Chapter 4 Jung: Analytical Psychology 125

these evaluations have no emotional content, but they are capable of becoming
emotions if their intensity increases to the point of stimulating physiological
changes within the person. Emotions, however, are not limited to feelings; any of
the four functions can lead to emotion when their strength is increased.
Extraverted feeling people use objective data to make evaluations. They are
not guided so much by their subjective opinion, but by external values and widely
accepted standards of judgment. They are likely to be at ease in social situations,
knowing on the spur of the moment what to say and how to say it. They are usu-
ally well liked because of their sociability, but in their quest to conform to social
standards, they may appear artificial, shallow, and unreliable. Their value judg-
ments will have an easily detectable false ring. Extraverted feeling people often
become businesspeople or politicians because these professions demand and
reward the making of value judgments based on objective information (Jung,
Introverted feeling people base their value judgments primarily on subjective
perceptions rather than objective facts. Critics of the various art forms make much
use of introverted feeling, making value judgments on the basis of subjective indi-
vidualized data. These people have an individualized conscience, a taciturn
demeanor, and an unfathomable psyche. They ignore traditional opinions and
beliefs, and their nearly complete indifference to the objective world (including
people) often causes persons around them to feel uncomfortable and to cool their
attitude toward them (Jung, 1921/1971).


The function that receives physical stimuli and transmits them to perceptual con-
sciousness is called sensation. Sensing is not identical to the physical stimulus but
is simply the individual’s perception of sensory impulses. These perceptions are not
dependent on logical thinking or feeling but exist as absolute, elementary facts within
each person.
Extraverted sensing people perceive external stimuli objectively, in much the
same way that these stimuli exist in reality. Their sensations are not greatly influ-
enced by their subjective attitudes. This facility is essential in such occupations as
proofreader, house painter, wine taster, or any other job demanding sensory dis-
criminations congruent with those of most people (Jung, 1921/1971).
Introverted sensing people are largely influenced by their subjective sensa-
tions of sight, sound, taste, touch, and so forth. They are guided by their interpre-
tation of sense stimuli rather than the stimuli themselves. Portrait artists, especially
those whose paintings are extremely personalized, rely on an introverted-sensing
attitude. They give a subjective interpretation to objective phenomena yet are able
to communicate meaning to others. When the subjective sensing attitude is carried
to its extreme, however, it may result in hallucinations or esoteric and incompre-
hensible speech (Jung, 1921/1971).


Intuition involves perception beyond the workings of consciousness. Like sensing,
it is based on the perception of absolute elementary facts, ones that provide the

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