Theories of Personality 9th Edition

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126 Part II Psychodynamic Theories

raw material for thinking and feeling. Intuiting differs from sensing in that it is
more creative, often adding or subtracting elements from conscious sensation.
Extraverted intuitive people are oriented toward facts in the external world.
Rather than fully sensing them, however, they merely perceive them subliminally.
Because strong sensory stimuli interfere with intuition, intuitive people suppress
many of their sensations and are guided by hunches and guesses contrary to sensory
data. An example of an extraverted intuitive type might be inventors who must
inhibit distracting sensory data and concentrate on unconscious solutions to objec-
tive problems. They may create things that fill a need few other people realized
Introverted intuitive people are guided by unconscious perception of facts
that are basically subjective and have little or no resemblance to external real-
ity. Their subjective intuitive perceptions are often remarkably strong and
capable of motivating decisions of monumental magnitude. Introverted intuitive
people, such as mystics, prophets, surrealistic artists, or religious fanatics, often
appear peculiar to people of other types who have little comprehension of their
motives. Actually, Jung (1921/1971) believed that introverted intuitive people
may not clearly understand their own motivations, yet they are deeply moved
by them. (See Table 4.1 for the eight Jungian types with some possible exam-
ples of each.)
The four functions usually appear in a hierarchy, with one occupying a supe-
rior position, another a secondary position, and the other two inferior positions.
Most people cultivate only one function, so they characteristically approach a
situation relying on the one dominant or superior function. Some people develop
two functions, and a few very mature individuals have cultivated three. A person
who has theoretically achieved self-realization or individuation would have all four
functions highly developed.


Examples of the Eight Jungian Types





Philosophers, theoretical
scientists, some inventors
Subjective movie critics, art
Artists, classical musicians

Prophets, mystics, religious

Research scientists, accountants,
Real estate appraisers, objective
movie critics
Wine tasters, proofreaders,
popular musicians, house
Some inventors, religious

Functions Attitudes
Introversion Extraversion
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