Farsi acronym SAVAK. During his tenure as director of SAVAK begin-
ning in 1957, relations between Israel and Iran improved significantly.
In September 1957, Bakhtiar met secretly in Paris with Mossad
case officer Ya’acov Caroz. Caroz served in France under the cover
of political councilor in the Israeli embassy. This meeting gave a vi-
tal boost to relations between the two countries in general and be-
tween the two intelligence communities in particular. Isser Harel
and Prime Minister Golda Meir extended these relations; Harel and
Bakhtiar had a close personal friendship.
The main Israeli goal in these ties with Iran was to encourage pro-
Israeli and anti-Arab views among Iranian government officials. Re-
lations with Iran were just one part of the comprehensive Periphery
Doctrine. Bakhtiar also maintained contact with the Central Intelli-
Bakhtiar was dismissed in 1961, allegedly for organizing a coup;
he was assassinated in 1970 under mysterious circumstances, proba-
bly on the shah’s direct order. However, the unique relations between
the Mossad and SAVAK remained in force until the Islamic revolu-
tion in Iran in 1979.
BARAK, EHUD (1942– ).Born in Kibbutz Mishmar Hasharon, Israel,
Barak earned his bachelor’s degree in physics and mathematics from
the Hebrew University in Jerusalem in 1976 and his master’s degree
in engineering-economic systems in 1978 from Stanford University
in Palo Alto, California.
In 1959 Barak was recruited into the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).
He served as a soldier and commander of the elite unit Sayeret
Matkaland in various other command positions. During the 1967
Six-Day War, Barak served as a reconnaissance group commander,
and in the 1973 Yom Kippur Warhe commanded a tank battalion in
the southern front in Sinai. In January 1982, Barak was appointed
head of the IDF Planning Directorate and was promoted to major
general. During the 1982 Peace for Galilee Operation, he served as
deputy commander of the Israeli force in Lebanon.
In April 1983, Barak was appointed director of Military Intelli-
gence(MI) in the IDF. In January 1986, he was appointed head of Cen-
tral Command, and in May 1987 he became deputy chief of the Gen-
eral Staff. In April 1991 Barak became the 14th chief of the General
Staff of the IDF and was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general.
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