How Not to Network a Nation. The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

(Ben Green) #1

Notes to Introduction 223

  1. For sample references, see Kevin Kelly, Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines,
    Social Systems, and the Economic World, Fourth Edition (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley,
    2004), chap. 4; Eric Raymond, The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and
    Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (New York: O’Reilly, 1999); and Leon
    Trotsky, Platform of the Joint Opposition (1927) (London: New Park Publications,
    1973), especially “The Agrarian Question and Social Construction.”

  2. Manuel Castells, End of the Millennium: The Information Age—Economy, Society,
    and Culture (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998), 5–68; Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other
    Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 3–8.

  3. Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets
    and Freedom (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).

  4. Melvin Kranzberg, “Technology and History: ‘Kranzberg’s Laws,’” Technology and
    Culture 27 (3) (1986): 544–560.

  5. For Latour’s aphorism, see Bruno Latour, “Technology Is Society Made Durable,”
    in A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology and Domination, ed. John Law,
    Sociological Review Monograph No. 38 (London: Routledge, 1991), 103–132. For an
    excellent bibliographical bridge between science and technology studies (STS) and
    the study of information technologies, see P. Boczkowski and L. Lievrouw, “Bridging
    STS and Communication Studies: Scholarship on Media and Information Technolo-
    gies,” in The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, ed. E. Hackett, O. Amster-
    damska, M. Lynch, and J. Wajcman, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007), 949–977.

  6. Geoffrey C. Bowker and Leigh Starr, Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Con-
    sequences (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999), 33–50.

  7. Eric Hobsbawm, How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism (New
    Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), 22–41.

  8. The article that made this book possible is Slava Gerovitch, “InterNyet: Why the
    Soviet Union Did Not Build a Nationwide Computer Network,” History and Technol-
    ogy, 24 (4) (2008): 335–350. See also Slava Gerovitch, “The Cybernetics Scare and the
    Origins of the Internet,” Baltic Worlds 2 (1) (2009): 32–38; Slava Gerovitch, From
    Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002);
    Slava Gerovitch, “Speaking Cybernetically: The Soviet Remaking of an American Sci-
    ence,” Ph.D. diss., Program in Science, Technology and Society, Massachusetts Insti-
    tute of Technology, 1999; Loren R. Graham, Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior
    in the Soviet Union (New York: Columbia University, 1987); Loren R. Graham, Science
    in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short History (New York: Cambridge University Press,
    1993); and Loren R. Graham, Lonely Ideas: Can Russia Compete? (Cambridge: MIT
    Press, 2013).

  9. Classic and recent histories of the Internet and its American milieu include
    Abbate, Inventing the Internet; Edwards, The Closed World; Burton, Spam; and Thomas

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