Notes to Introduction 223
- For sample references, see Kevin Kelly, Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines,
Social Systems, and the Economic World, Fourth Edition (Reading, MA: Addison Wesley,
2004), chap. 4; Eric Raymond, The Cathedral and the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and
Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary (New York: O’Reilly, 1999); and Leon
Trotsky, Platform of the Joint Opposition (1927) (London: New Park Publications,
1973), especially “The Agrarian Question and Social Construction.”
- Manuel Castells, End of the Millennium: The Information Age—Economy, Society,
and Culture (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 1998), 5–68; Lawrence Lessig, Code and Other
Laws of Cyberspace (New York: Basic Books, 1999), 3–8.
- Yochai Benkler, The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets
and Freedom (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006).
- Melvin Kranzberg, “Technology and History: ‘Kranzberg’s Laws,’” Technology and
Culture 27 (3) (1986): 544–560.
- For Latour’s aphorism, see Bruno Latour, “Technology Is Society Made Durable,”
in A Sociology of Monsters: Essays on Power, Technology and Domination, ed. John Law,
Sociological Review Monograph No. 38 (London: Routledge, 1991), 103–132. For an
excellent bibliographical bridge between science and technology studies (STS) and
the study of information technologies, see P. Boczkowski and L. Lievrouw, “Bridging
STS and Communication Studies: Scholarship on Media and Information Technolo-
gies,” in The Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, ed. E. Hackett, O. Amster-
damska, M. Lynch, and J. Wajcman, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2007), 949–977.
- Geoffrey C. Bowker and Leigh Starr, Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Con-
sequences (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999), 33–50.
- Eric Hobsbawm, How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism (New
Haven: Yale University Press, 2011), 22–41.
- The article that made this book possible is Slava Gerovitch, “InterNyet: Why the
Soviet Union Did Not Build a Nationwide Computer Network,” History and Technol-
ogy, 24 (4) (2008): 335–350. See also Slava Gerovitch, “The Cybernetics Scare and the
Origins of the Internet,” Baltic Worlds 2 (1) (2009): 32–38; Slava Gerovitch, From
Newspeak to Cyberspeak: A History of Soviet Cybernetics (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002);
Slava Gerovitch, “Speaking Cybernetically: The Soviet Remaking of an American Sci-
ence,” Ph.D. diss., Program in Science, Technology and Society, Massachusetts Insti-
tute of Technology, 1999; Loren R. Graham, Science, Philosophy, and Human Behavior
in the Soviet Union (New York: Columbia University, 1987); Loren R. Graham, Science
in Russia and the Soviet Union: A Short History (New York: Cambridge University Press,
1993); and Loren R. Graham, Lonely Ideas: Can Russia Compete? (Cambridge: MIT
- Classic and recent histories of the Internet and its American milieu include
Abbate, Inventing the Internet; Edwards, The Closed World; Burton, Spam; and Thomas