How Not to Network a Nation. The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

(Ben Green) #1

Notes to Chapter 1 231

  1. Gerovitch, From Newspeak to Cyberspeak, 119–121.

  2. Published under the pseudonym “Materialist,” Voprosy Filisofii 5 (1953): 210–

  3. Gerovitch, From Newspeak to Cyberspeak, 124–126. See also Ocherki istorii informa-
    tiki v Russii, ed. D. Pospelov and Ya. Fet (Novosibirsk: Nauchnyi Tsentr Publikatsii
    RAS, 1998).

  4. Mark M. Rosenthal and Pavel F. Iudin, eds., Kratkiĭ filosofskiĭ slovar’, 4th ed.
    (Moscow: Gospolitizdat, 1954), 236–237; also quoted in Masani, Norbert Wiener, 261.

  5. Gerovitch, From Newspeak to Cyberspeak, 119.

  6. Ilia B. Novik, “Normal’naia Lzhnauka” [ “A Normal Pseudoscience”], Voprosy isto-
    rii estestvoznaniia i tekhniki (Questions of History of Natural Science and Technology) 4
    (4) (1990), quoted in Gerovitch, From Newspeak to Cyberspeak, 103.

  7. For more reading on Soviet science, see note 43. On Vygotsky in particular, see
    Alex Kozulin, Vygotsky’s Psychology: A Biography of Ideas (Cambridge: Harvard Uni-
    versity Press, 1990).

  8. Sergei N. Khrushchev, Nikita Khrushchev and the Creation of a Superpower (Univer-
    sity Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000), 94–96, 163–173.

  9. George Paloczi-Horvath, Khrushchev: The Making of a Dictator (New York: Little,
    Brown, 1960), 202.

  10. Paloczi-Horvath, Khrushchev: The Making of a Dictator, 202.

  11. Ibid., 80.

  12. David Holloway, “Physics, the State, and Civil Society in the Soviet Union,” His-
    torical Studies in Physical and Biological Sciences 100 (1) (1999): 173–192; Loren R.
    Graham, “How Robust Is Science under Stress?,” What Have We Learned about Science
    and Technology from the Russian Experience? (Stanford: Stanford University Press,
    1998), 52–73.

  13. Ivan Pavlov, Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the
    Cerebral Cortex, trans. and ed. G. V. Anrep (London: Oxford University Press, 1927).

  14. Josephson, New Atlantis Revisited.

  15. Stanislav Boguslavski, Henryk Grenievski, and Jerzy Szapiro, “Dialogi o cyberne-
    tyce,” Mysl filozoficzna 4 (14) (1954): 158–212, cited in Günther, “Cybernetics and
    Dialectical Materialism of Marx and Lenin.”

  16. Anatoly Kitov, “Chelovek, kotoryi vynes kibernetiku iz sekretnoi biblioteki”
    [“ The Man Who Brought Cybernetics Out of a Secret Library”], interview,
    Komp’iuterra 43 (November 18, 1996): 44–45.

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