240 Notes to Chapter 2
Castells, End of the Millennium, 24.
For a basic review of tolkachy and other informal mechanisms in the economy,
see Mark Beissinger, Scientific Management, Socialist Discipline, and Soviet Power (Cam-
bridge: Harvard University Press, 1988); Ledeneva, Russia’s Economy of Favors; and
Alena V. Ledeneva, Can Russia Modernize? Sistema, Power Networks and Informal Gov-
ernance (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013).
Byung-Yeon Kim, “Informal Economy Activities of Soviet Households: Size and
Dynamics,” Journal of Comparative Economics 31 (3) ( 2003): 532–551.
Kim, “Informal Economy Activities of Soviet Households,” 532–535; Simon
Johnson, Daniel Kaufmann, and Andrei Shleifer, “The Unofficial Economy in Tran-
sition,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2 (1997): 159–221.
Ledeneva, Russia’s Economy of Favors, 12.
Zbigniew K. Brzezinski, The Soviet Block: Unity and Conflict, rev. ed. (New York:
Praeger, 1960), 116, see also 115–124.
From Elet es Tudomany, December 24, 1952, and Rude Pravo, December 21, 1952,
quoted in Brzezinski, The Soviet Block, 114.
David Granick, Management of the Industrial Firm in the USSR: A Study in Soviet
Economic Planning (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955), 229.
Gregory, Restructuring the Soviet Economic Bureaucracy, 173. On the sticking power
of informal relations in other socially networked economies, see Mark Granovetter,
“The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology 78 (6) (1973): 1360–1380.
Gertrude Schroeder, “The Soviet Economy on a Treadmill of Reforms,” Soviet
Economy in a Time of Change, U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee (Washing-
ton, DC: USGPO, 1979).
Castells, The End of the Millennium, 24.
Loren R. Graham, The Ghost of the Executed Engineer: Technology and the Fall of the
Soviet Union (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1993), 73.
Thorsten Veblen, The Engineers and the Price System (New York: Huebsch, 1921).
Castells, The End of the Millennium, 30.
Erickson et al., How Reason Almost Lost Its Mind, 81–106.