GREAT CAPITALS 25
The capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania,
which stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea
in its 15th-century heyday, Vilnius is packed
with grand architecture befitting its wide-
ranging historical heritage.
Capital of Russia
since 1480, Moscow
rose to become the
nerve centre of
the Tsarist Empire.
Though displaced by
St Petersburg from
remained the heart-
land of Russian
Orthodox culture as
is evident from the
fine churches lining
its central squares.
Elegant Neo-Classical Warsaw was
almost completely destroyed by the
Germans in 1944. Pain s takingly
reconstructed after World War II,
today it is an enduring symbol of
Polish national survival.