of the most significant psychologists in the “Fabulous 15” section and suggest that you focus your studying
on those individuals.
Multiple-choice practice questions and an explanation of the correct answer are provided at the end of
each review chapter. We recommend that you first review the material in the chapter and then answer all
the review questions in order to test your comprehension.
To help prepare you for the exam, Chapter 15 presents a group of testing tips and Chapter 16 focuses on
how to answer the free-response questions. We have included a discussion of how best to approach the
essays and also provide a number of examples of the kinds of essay questions likely to appear on the
exam. We also include model essay answers to give you an idea of what the readers of the exam are
USING PSYCHOLOGY TO STUDY PSYCHOLOGY
Research by cognitive and educational psychologists indicates that the following three principles might be
the most powerful ideas students can use to make their studying more efficient and effective. This book is
designed to help you use these principles.
Studies consistently show that spreading your studying out over a period of time is much more effective
than “massing” your studying just before you have to use the information (that is, cramming for a test).
This book begins with a diagnostic test. You can use this practice exam to “diagnose” what chapters you
already know well and which chapters you need to study thoroughly. You can use this assessment of your
strengths and weaknesses to plan your study schedule, spreading your studying across a period of time.
Encoding the meaning of terms, that is, thinking deeply about what psychological terms and concepts
MEAN to you, and thinking about them in your own words and attaching your own personal examples to
them are effective ways to study and retain information. In this book, we provide multiple examples of the
terms and concepts discussed. The more you “personalize” the terms and examples, thinking about how
they apply to you and your own life, the more likely you’ll be to remember those ideas on the exam.
Remember, learning is an ACTIVE, not a PASSIVE activity. The more you involve yourself in the process
by thinking about how the terms and theories apply to you and your life, the better you’ll remember the
content in this book (and you’ll reduce your overall studying time!).
The Testing Effect
Recent research indicates that interrupting your studying with frequent small quizzes over the content is
very effective. Students who frequently answer questions about the content they are studying are more
likely to remember the content, even if they don’t answer the questions correctly. This book is designed to
help you take advantage of the testing effect. The chapters in this book are 10 to 20 pages long and each
end with 15 practice questions. Treat these practice questions like a “mini-test” after you are done
studying the chapter. Try to answer the questions without looking back at the chapter or looking ahead at
the correct answers. Even if you don’t feel ready for the quiz at the end of the chapter, or if you get many
of the items wrong, the experience of taking the test and thinking about your answers will help you learn
and remember the terms and concepts.
Finally, the book includes an index that will be helpful to you anytime you come across a term or