On the basis
These plants flower and fruit only once in their lifetime. All annual and
biennial plants are monocarpic. However, some perennial plants are
also monocarpic, e.g., bamboo and Agave.
These plants bear flowers and fruits
repeatedly after attaining maturity, e.g.,
Acacia, Eucalyptus, Mangifera, etc.
Plants which complete their life cycle from germination
through flowering and seed production to death in a
single year or less. Examples include cereals, grains,
Plants which complete their life cycle in two years.
Flowering usually occurs during the second year, after
a year of vegetative growth. Beets and carrots are
Plants that live for few
years to several hundred
years, e.g., trees like neem,
On the basis of life span
On the basis of habitat
(Natural home of organisms)
Plants growing in aquatic habitats. Most of them are found in freshwater, e.g.,
Wolffia, Lemna, Nelumbo, etc. However, few are marine, e.g., Zostera, Thalassia.
Plants growing over rocky substrata, e.g., many
algae, Nostoc, ferns, etc.
Plants of moist habitats like
tropical rainforests, crop plants,
etc., e.g., sunflower, Artocarpus.
Plants growing in dry habitats,
e.g., Capparis, Acacia. They may
be succulents, e.g., Euphorbia.
Plants occur in sandy
Plants of saline habitats that may be terrestrial, e.g., Salsola or
mangrove plants (found in marshy habitats along sea shore), e.g.,
PARTS OF A FLOWERING PLANT
- Plant axis is differentiated into above ground
shoot system and underground root system.
The different structures borne on the plant axis
are called organs. There are two types of plant
organs, vegetative and reproductive. Root, stem
and leaves are vegetative organs while flowers,
fruits and seeds are reproductive organs.
MORPHOLOGY OF ROOT
- The root is typically a non-green underground
descending portion of the plant axis which gives
rise to similar types of endogenous lateral branches
and does not possess nodes and internodes. It is
positively geotropic, positively hydrotropic and
Parts of Root
- A typical root possesses following parts:
Fig.: Parts of a flowering plant