modications Tuber is an oval or spherical
underground swollen structure
that does not bear adventitious
roots, e.g., potato (Solanum
Root Scar of scale leaf
Fig.:Tubers of potato
Rhizome is a perennial fleshy
underground stem which
continues its growth indefinitely in
the soil producing new leaves or
aerial shoots during the favourable
season and perennation during
the unfavourable season, e.g.,
Bulb is an underground pyriform-spherical modified shoot having highly reduced convex
or slightly conical disc-shaped stem and several fleshy scales enclosing a terminal bud.
Bulbs are of two types:
(a) Tunicated bulb consists of concentric layers of fleshy scales surrounding the
reduced stem having terminal bud. The outermost few scales of the bulb become dry and
membranous forming a protective covering called tunic. These bulbs are of two types-
(i) Simple tunicated bulbs, e.g., Allium cepa (onion) and (ii) Compound tunicated
bulbs, e.g., Allium sativum (garlic).
(b) Scaly: A tunic or covering sheath is absent. The fleshy scales are narrow and overlap
one another on margins only, e.g., lily.
Fig.:Bulb of Onion
Corm is a short, thick, swollen,
usually unbranched, spherical or
subspherical underground stem
which grows vertically in the
soil and is formed annually. e.g.,
Sucker is a special non-green slender
stem branch which arises from the
underground base of an erect shoot
and grows horizontally in the soil and
ultimately comes out to form a new
aerial shoot. E.g., Chrysanthemum,
Scale leaf Sucker
Fig.:Sucker of mint roots
Storage of food,e.g.,
rhizome of ginger,
tuber of potato, etc.
Synthesis of food,e.g.,
cladode ofRuscus, etc.
Perennation and vegetative
Colocasia,rhizome of ginger, etc.
of grapevine, hooks
Bears leaves and holds them
in such a position so as to
provide maximum sunlight.
Conducts water and mineral
nutrients from the roots to the
leaves, flowers and fruits.
Conducts organic food
from the leaves to the
roots and storage organs.
Holds flowers in sucha
position so as to facilitate
pollination and fertilisation.
MORPHOLOGY OF LEAF
- Leaf is a green, exogenous lateral flattened outgrowth borne on the node of a stem or branch and is specialised to perform
MPP-9 CLASS XI ANSWER KEY
- (b) 2. (d) 3. (d) 4. (b) 5. (d)
- (a) 7. (b) 8. (a) 9. (c) 10. (d)
- (a) 12. (b) 13. (c) 14. (a) 15. (d)
- (b) 17. (b) 18. (c) 19. (c) 20. (a)
- (b) 22. (b) 23. (a) 24. (c) 25. (a)
- (c) 27. (d) 28. (d) 29. (a) 30. (c)
- (c) 32. (c) 33. (c) 34. (d) 35. (d)
- (a) 37. (b) 38. (c) 39. (d) 40. (c)
- Cladode Pg. 22
- Umbel Pg. 27
- Founder eect Pg. 63
- Dryopithecus africanus Pg. 67
ANSWERS WHO AM I ...