Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning

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Models for


In the previous chapter, we explored a class of regression models having particularly
simple analytical and computational properties. We now discuss an analogous class
of models for solving classification problems. The goal in classification is to take an
input vectorxand to assign it to one ofKdiscrete classesCkwherek=1,...,K.
In the most common scenario, the classes are taken to be disjoint, so that each input is
assigned to one and only one class. The input space is thereby divided intodecision
regionswhose boundaries are calleddecision boundariesordecision surfaces.In
this chapter, we consider linear models for classification, by which we mean that the
decision surfaces are linear functions of the input vectorxand hence are defined
by(Dāˆ’1)-dimensional hyperplanes within theD-dimensional input space. Data
sets whose classes can be separated exactly by linear decision surfaces are said to be
linearly separable.
For regression problems, the target variabletwas simply the vector of real num-
bers whose values we wish to predict. In the case of classification, there are various

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