Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions. Yu Hyongwon and the Late Choson Dynasty - James B. Palais

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cracy, and the failure of punishment and coercion to achieve moral rectification.
He praised the ancient model of moral education and recruitment by recom-
mendation, a method that was attempted in the Sung but failed because recom-
mendation "was not based on the opinions of people in the villages.'" ,6
Yu admired Ch'eng Hao's li-ming or "courtesy appointment" plan and pro-
posed that it be adopted for Korea. According to Ch'eng Hao's proposal, the
emperor would request that his close retainers, worthy Confucian scholars
throughout the country, provincial governors, and district magistrates, recom-
mend "people who have a clear understanding of the ways of the ancient kings,
are fully virtuous, and are qualified to be teachers and models for others." Once
recommended, these men would be invited to court and afforded courteous treat-
ment, provided with adequate salaries and housed in a special institute for the
recruiting and training of the governing class, called the Hall for Inviting the
Brave (Yen-ying-ytian).
These assembled recommended scholars would then convene on a daily basis
for study and mutual reflection on "the principles of things" (wu-li, mulli in
Korean) and the cultivation of such specific Confucian topics as filial piety, broth-
erly respect, loyalty, trust, rites, and music. The worthiest would be recommended
for high official posts, the best scholars for instructors in the National Academy,
and the next best for instructors in the local schools throughout the empire. All
teachers would be given adequate salaries and exempted from personal labor
service, but if any were found to violate Confucian norms, they would be expelled
from their posts and enrolled for military service.' '7
The Chou system of village or community schools would be resurrected along
with the National Academy and district schools. As in the Chou, district mag-
istrates would show their respect for the local schools, teachers, and students
by conducting the local wine-drinking rite every year and by inviting the local
elders to the proceedings. The students in the local schools would then convene
and recommend the most learned and virtuous scholars to be appointed to office
or promoted to prefectural level schools.
Any student found deficient in his studies or behavior would be subject to
dismissal, and the school instructors and officials would also be held respon-
sible and punished. Students deemed eligible for promotion to higher level
schools would be exempted, along with their families, from labor service. At
the highest level, the National Academy, the worthy and able students would
be recommended to the court for office. Such recommendees would be dubbed
selected scholars (hsuan-shih, sonsa in Korean), a term used in the Wang-chih
section of the Book of Rites, and then examined on their knowledge of the clas-
sics and their capabilities for performing administrative tasks.' ,8
Students at all schools would be expected to remain in attendance for three
years before being eligible for promotion from the lowest school, or one year
from higher schools, with exceptions for outstanding students. Consistent with
the ancient model, the goals of education and criteria of evaluation stressed the
combination of knowledge and behavior: "In general the method of selecting

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