The China Study by Thomas Campbell
- Chandra V, Pandav R, Dodge HH, et a1. "Incidence of Alzheimer's disease in a rural commu-
nity in India: the Indo-U.s. Study." Neurology 57 (2001): 985--989.
- Grant WB. "Dietary links to Alzheimer's Disease: 1999 Update." }. Alzheimers Dis 1 (1999):
- Grant WB. "Incidence of dementia and Alzheimer disease in Nigeria and the United States."
lAMA 285 (2001): 2448.
- This recently published study is more interesting than the others because vitamin E was mea-
sured in a way that is more discriminating by considering the fact that vitamin E is carried in
the blood fat. That is, a high level of blood vitamin E may, at times, be due to high levels of
blood fat. (Am.). Epidemiol. 150 (1999); 37-44)
- The effects of vitamin C and selenium in a study by Perkins (Am. J. Epidemio1. 150 (1999):
37-44) were not statistically significant in a logistic regression model, according to the au-
thors. I disagree with their conclusion because the inverse "dose-response" trend (high anti-
oxidant blood levels, less memory loss) was impressive and clearly Significant. The authors
failed to address this finding in their analysis.
- Ortega RM, Requejo AM, Andres P, et a1. "Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of
elderly people." Am.}. Clin. Nutr. 66 (1997): 803-809.
- Perrig WJ, Perrig P, and Stahelin HB. "The relation between antioxidants and memory perfor-
mance in the old and very old."}. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 45 (1997): 718-724.
- Gale CR, Martyn CN, and Cooper C. "Cognitive impairment and mortality in a cohort of
elderly people." Brit. Med. loum. 312 (1996): 608-611.
- GoodwinJS, GoodwinJM, and Garry PJ. "Association between nutritional status and cogni-
tive functioning in a healthy elderly population." lAMA 249 (1983): 2917-2921.
- Jama lW, Launer LJ, Witteman JCM, et al. "Dietary antioxidants and cognitive function in
a population-based sample of older persons: the Rotterdam Study." Am. }. Epidemiol. 144
- Martin A, Prior R, Shukitt-Hale B, et al. "Effect of fruits, vegetables or vitamin E-rich diet on
vitamins E and C distribution in peripheral and brain tissues: implications for brain func-
tion."}. Gerontology 55A (2000): BI44-8151.
- JosephJA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. "Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal
signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or
strawberry dietary supplementation."}. Neurosci. 19 (1999): 8114-8121.
- Gillman MW, Cupples LA, Gagnon D, et al. "Protective effect of fruits and vegetables on
development of stroke in men." lAMA 273 (1995): 1113-1117.
- Kalmijn S, Launer LJ, Ott A, et a1. "Dietary fat intake and the risk of incident dementia in the
Rotterdam Study." Ann. Neurol. 42 (1997): 776-782.
- Alzheimer's trend was not statistically significant, perhaps due to the small number of disease
- Clarke R, Smith D,Jobst KA, et al. "Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels
in confirmed Alzheimer disease." Arch. Neurol. 55 (1998): 1449-1455.
- McCully KS. " Homocysteine theory of arteriosclerosis: development and current status." In:
A. M. Gotto, Jr. and R. Paoletti (eds.), Athersderosis reviews, Vol. 11, pp. 157-246. New York:
Raven Press, 1983.
- There is a potential snag in this logic, however. Homocysteine levels are regulated in part by
B vitamins, most notably folic acid and vitamin Bn, and people who are deficient in these
vitamins may have higher homocysteine levels. People who do not consume animal-based
foods are at risk for having low Bn levels, and thus high homocysteine levels. However, as
described in chapter eleven, this has more to do with our separation from nature, and not a
defiCiency of plant-based diets.