How Not to Network a Nation. The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

(Ben Green) #1

226 Notes to Inroduction and Chapter 1

  1. For more on the historical designator new media, see Benjamin Peters, “And Lead
    Us Not into Thinking the New Is New: A Bibliographic Case for New Media History,”
    New Media and Society 11 (1–2) (2009): 13–30.

  2. Aleksandr Ya. Khinchin, “Teoria prosteishego potoka” (Mathematical Methods
    of the Theory of Mass Service; more literally, Simple Stream Theory), Trudy
    Matematicheskogo Instituta Steklov. 49 (1955): 3–122.

  3. János Kornai, The Socialist System: The Political Economy of Communism (Prince-
    ton: Princeton University Press, 1992); David Graeber, Debt: The First Five Thousand
    Years (New York: Melville House, 2011), 94.

  4. The field of institutional economics offers pragmatic approaches to observed
    irrationalities in individual and group actions. A few standard references in the lit-
    erature include Thorsten Veblen’s heterodox position in “Why Is Economics Not an
    Evolutionary Science?,” Quarterly Journal of Economics 12 (1898): 373–393; Thomas
    C. Schelling, Micromotives and Macrobehavior (New York: Norton, 1978); Douglass C.
    North, Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance (New York: Cam-
    bridge University Press, 1998); Ronald Coase, “The New Institutional Economics,”
    American Economic Review 88 (2) (1998): 72–74; and William Kapp, The Foundations
    of Institutional Economics (New York: Routledge, 2011). For comparison to the quirki-
    ness of individual decisions, see popular introductions to cognitive psychology and
    behavioral psychology and economics, such as Daniel Kahnemann, Thinking Fast
    and Slow (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2011), and Dan Ariely, Predictably
    Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions (New York: HarperCollins,
    2008). Compare these to recent works on the informal and violent character of post-
    Soviet economics, including Alena V. Ledeneva, Russia’s Economy of Favors: Blat,
    Networking and Information Exchange (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998),
    and Vadim Volkov, Violent Entrepreneurs: The Use of Force in the Making of Russian
    Capitalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002).

  5. The English-language literature on tech entrepreneurs is long and popular,
    including Walter Isaacson, The Innovators (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2014), and
    Peter Thiel, Zero to One: Notes on Startups, or How to Build the Future (New York:
    Crown Business, 2014), but very little of it to my knowledge looks beyond the West
    (in particular, the west coast of the United States and the eastern Asian rim), such as
    Eden Medina, ed., Beyond Imported Magic: Essays on Science, Technology, and Society in
    Latin America (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2014).

Chapter 1: A Global History of Cybernetics

  1. See note 20 on cybernetic literature in the introduction to this book.

  2. See Wiener, Cybernetics; Bowker, “How to Be Universal: Some Cybernetic Strate-
    gies, 1943–70”; Galison, “The Ontology of the Enemy”; and J. R. Pierce, “The Early

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