Notes to Chapter 1 227
Days of Information Theory,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 19 (1) (1973):
3–8; and especially Ronald R. Kline, The Cybernetics Moment, Or Why We Call Our Age
the Information Age (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015).
Ronald R. Kline, “Where Are the Cyborgs in Cybernetics?,” Social Studies of Science
39 (3) (2009): 331–362.
Wiener, Cybernetics. On the curious father-son circularities between Leo’s Slavic
studies and Norbert’s cold war cybernetics, see Benjamin Peters, “Toward a Geneal-
ogy of a Cold War Communication Science: The Strange Loops of Leo and Norbert
Wiener,” Russian Journal of Communication 5 (1) (2013): 31–43.
This section draws on my previously published work on cybernetics, including
Bernard Geoghegan and Benjamin Peters, “Cybernetics” in The John Hopkins Guide to
Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan et. al. (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press,
Wiener’s classic works include his technical masterpiece Cybernetics, the popular
The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
1950), and his deathbed lectures God and Golem, Inc.: A Comment on Certain Points
Where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964).
Wiener, Cybernetics, 1–25, 155–168.
Dupuy, Mechanization of the Mind. See also John von Neumann, The Computer and
the Brain, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press,  2000).
Quoted in Claus Pias, “Analog, Digital, and the Cybernetic Illusion,” Kybernetes
34 (3–4) (2005): 544.
Claus Pias, ed., Cybernetics-Kybernetik 2: The Macy-Conferences 1946–1953 (Berlin:
Steve J. Heims, The Cybernetics Group (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991).
Ibid., 52–53, 207.
William Aspray, John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing (Cam-
bridge: MIT Press, 1990).
David Lipset, Gregory Bateson: The Legacy of a Scientist (New York: Prentice Hall,
1980). See also Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago: University
of Chicago Press, 2006), 121–125.
Jefferson Pooley, “An Accident of Memory: Edward Shils, Paul Lazarsfeld and the
History of American Mass Communication Research,” Ph.D. diss., Columbia Univer-
sity, New York, 2006.