How Not to Network a Nation. The Uneasy History of the Soviet Internet

(Ben Green) #1

Notes to Chapter 1 227

Days of Information Theory,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 19 (1) (1973):
3–8; and especially Ronald R. Kline, The Cybernetics Moment, Or Why We Call Our Age
the Information Age (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2015).

  1. Ronald R. Kline, “Where Are the Cyborgs in Cybernetics?,” Social Studies of Science
    39 (3) (2009): 331–362.

  2. Wiener, Cybernetics. On the curious father-son circularities between Leo’s Slavic
    studies and Norbert’s cold war cybernetics, see Benjamin Peters, “Toward a Geneal-
    ogy of a Cold War Communication Science: The Strange Loops of Leo and Norbert
    Wiener,” Russian Journal of Communication 5 (1) (2013): 31–43.

  3. This section draws on my previously published work on cybernetics, including
    Bernard Geoghegan and Benjamin Peters, “Cybernetics” in The John Hopkins Guide to
    Digital Media, ed. Marie-Laure Ryan et. al. (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press,
    2014), 109–112.

  4. Wiener’s classic works include his technical masterpiece Cybernetics, the popular
    The Human Use of Human Beings: Cybernetics and Society (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,
    1950), and his deathbed lectures God and Golem, Inc.: A Comment on Certain Points
    Where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1964).

  5. Wiener, Cybernetics, 1–25, 155–168.

  6. Ibid., 16.

  7. Dupuy, Mechanization of the Mind. See also John von Neumann, The Computer and
    the Brain, 2nd ed. (New Haven: Yale University Press, [1958] 2000).

  8. Quoted in Claus Pias, “Analog, Digital, and the Cybernetic Illusion,” Kybernetes
    34 (3–4) (2005): 544.

  9. Claus Pias, ed., Cybernetics-Kybernetik 2: The Macy-Conferences 1946–1953 (Berlin:
    Diaphanes, 2004).

  10. Steve J. Heims, The Cybernetics Group (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991).

  11. Ibid., 52–53, 207.

  12. William Aspray, John von Neumann and the Origins of Modern Computing (Cam-
    bridge: MIT Press, 1990).

  13. David Lipset, Gregory Bateson: The Legacy of a Scientist (New York: Prentice Hall,
    1980). See also Fred Turner, From Counterculture to Cyberculture (Chicago: University
    of Chicago Press, 2006), 121–125.

  14. Jefferson Pooley, “An Accident of Memory: Edward Shils, Paul Lazarsfeld and the
    History of American Mass Communication Research,” Ph.D. diss., Columbia Univer-
    sity, New York, 2006.

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