34 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS wherek 1 =ψ 21 /ψ 11 andk 2 =ψ 12 /ψ 22. Whenkapproaches unity, the two inductors are said to be tightly cou ...
1.2 LUMPED-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS 35 is such that a currentientering a dotted (undotted) terminal in one coil induces a voltage M[di/d ...
36 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS Also find the energy stored in each of the above cases att=0. Solution L 11 =L 22 = 0 .1H; M=10 mH= 10 × 10 ...
1.2 LUMPED-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS 37 Mutual flux Primarywinding Load (N 1 turns) Secondary winding (N 2 turns) Ferromagnetic core of i ...
38 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS − + N 1 Ideal transformer (a) N 2 v 1 i 1 i 2 v 2 + − + − RL − + N 1 N 2 (b) v 1 i 1 i 2 + − − + (c) v 1 i 1 ...
1.3 KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS 39 (b) By voltage division [see Figure E1.2.6(c)] one gets v′L= 1800 1800 + 1800 ( 10 √ 2 sin 2t)=( 5 √ 2 s ...
40 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS all currents (entering or leaving) at any node is zero, or no node can accumulate or store charge. Figure 1. ...
1.3 KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS 41 In a network consisting of one or more energy sources and one or more circuit elements, thecause-and-eff ...
42 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS EXAMPLE 1.3.2 For the circuit shown in Figure E1.3.2, use KCL and KVL to determinei 1 ,i 2 ,vbdandvx. Also, ...
1.3 KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS 43 veb=− 8 − 7 =−15 V Alternatively, veb=vea+vab=− 20 + 5 =−15 V or veb=vec+vcf+vfb=−vx+vcf+ 0 =− 12 − 3 =− ...
44 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS (c) Show that the conservation of power is satisfied by the circuit. − + − R 1 = 10 Ω + I R 2 = 40 Ω R 4 = 5 ...
1.3 KIRCHHOFF’S LAWS 45 Power absorbed by resistorR 4 =( 0. 1 )^2 × 50 = 0 .5W Power delivered by sources= 2. 4 − 1. 2 = 1 .2W P ...
46 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS Power absorbed by resistorR 2 =I 22 R 2 =( 3 )^24 =36 W Power absorbed by resistorR 3 =I 32 R 3 =( 1 )^212 = ...
1.4 METERS AND MEASUREMENTS 47 (ii) ForgR= 1 ,Req→∞. The internal controlled source provides all of the current throughR, thereb ...
48 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS Solution When no instrument is connected, by voltage division,V+AG=1 V. With internal resistance RVof the in ...
1.4 METERS AND MEASUREMENTS 49 PTs are employed to step down the voltage to a suitable level, whereas CTs (connected in series w ...
50 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS V Rb Ra Rs Rx A Figure 1.4.2Basic Wheatstone bridge circuit for resistance measurement. EXAMPLE 1.4.2 Redraw ...
1.5 ANALOGY BETWEEN ELECTRICAL AND OTHER NONELECTRICPHYSICAL SYSTEMS 51 TABLE 1.5.1Mechanical-Electrical Analogs Mathematical Fo ...
52 CIRCUIT CONCEPTS TABLE 1.5.3Analogy Between Thermal and Electrical Systems Thermal System Electrical System Heat Charge Heat ...
PROBLEMS 53 The resistance of a conductor with a circular cross-sectional areaA, lengthl, and conductivity σis given by Equation ...
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